Piyarat Govitrapong

Piyarat Govitrapong, Ph.D.,
Prof. Emeritus

Piyarat2Ph.D.(Neuropharmacology), University of Nebraska, 1986.
Email: piyarat.gov@mahidol.ac.th
Ext.1311
Field of Research: Neuroscience

Melatonin, a hormone mainly synthesized in pineal gland, is multifunctioning. The level of melatonin diminishes with increasing age, coincident with the onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In addition to its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, melatonin has a multitude of other functions that could assist in explaining different hypotheses of AD, such as the role of neuroinflammation, the calcium, mitochondrial dysfunction, the insulin resistance, oxidative stress. The intent of our study is to stimulate interest in melatonin as a potentially useful agent in attenuating and/or delaying AD and brain aging. Our study underlines the potential of melatonin to slow the progressive deterioration of AD brain, in light of the known hypotheses that attempt to explain the neurodegeneration. Based on a multitude of experimental results, melatonin benefits may influence on neurogenesis and neurodegeneration processes that makes it as an anti-aging agent. The objectives of our study are 1. To investigate the effects of the aging process and neurodegeneration on brain functions 2. To develop new methods of prevention and slow down the age-related brain diseases, AD, 3. To obtain a greater understanding of the molecular and epigenetic aging of the brain and anti-aging mechanisms to increase the life span under healthy conditions, 4. To develop new strategies to promote successful brain aging, 5. To develop new research strategies to extend the life span and 6. To explore new discoveries, technologies and agents which have the potential to reduce the suffering and cost associated with diseases and injuries of the brain.

Selected Publications

1.Ruksee, N., Tongjaroenbuangam, W., Mahanam, T., and *Govitrapong, P. Melatonin pretreatment prevented the effect of dexamethasone negative alterations on behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in the mouse brain. J Steroid BiochemMol Biol. 2014.143C:72-80.

2. Sarlak, G., Jenwitheesuk, A., Chetsawang, B., and *Govitrapong, P. Effects of melatonin on nervous system aging: neurogenesis and neurodegeneration. J Pharmacol Sci. 2013.123(1):9-24.

3. Permpoonputtana, K., Mukda, S., and *Govitrapong, P. Effect of melatonin on D-amphetamine-induced neuroglial alterations in postnatal rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. NeurosciLett. 2012.524(1):1-4.

4. Tongjaroenbuangam, W., Ruksee, N., Chantiratikul, P., Pakdeenarong, N., Kongbuntad, W., and *Govitrapong, P. Neuroprotective effects of quercetin, rutin and okra (Abelmoschusesculentus Linn.) in dexamethasone-treated mice. Neurochem Int. 2011.59(5):677-685.

5. Sotthibundhu, A., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., and *Govitrapong, P. Melatonin increases proliferation of cultured neural stem cells obtained from adult mouse subventricular zone. J Pineal Res. 2010.49(3):291-300.

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Full Publications

1. Ruksee, N., Tongjaroenbuangam, W., Mahanam, T., and *Govitrapong, P. Melatonin pretreatment prevented the effect of dexamethasone negative alterations on behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis in the mouse brain. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014.143C:72-80.

2. Nopparat, C., Porter, J. E., Ebadi, M., and *Govitrapong, P. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced cell death via autophagy through a Bcl-2/Beclin 1 complex-dependent pathway. Neurochem Res. 2014.39(2):225-232.

3. Jumnongprakhon, P., Govitrapong, P., Tocharus, C., Tungkum, W., and *Tocharus, J. Protective effect of melatonin on methamphetamine-induced apoptosis in glioma cell line. Neurotox Res. 2014.25(3):286-294.

4. Wongchitrat, P., Mukda, S., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., and *Govitrapong, P. Effect of amphetamine on the clock gene expression in rat striatum. Neurosci Lett. 2013.;542:126-130.

5. Tongjaroenbuangam, W., Ruksee, N., Mahanam, T., and *Govitrapong, P. Melatonin attenuates dexamethasone-induced spatial memory impairment and dexamethasone-induced reduction of synaptic protein expressions in the mouse brain. Neurochem Int. 2013.63(5):482-491.

6. Suwanjang, W., Abramov, A. Y., Govitrapong, P., and *Chetsawang, B. Melatonin attenuates dexamethasone toxicity-induced oxidative stress, calpain and caspase activation in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2013.138:116-122.

7. Sarlak, G., Jenwitheesuk, A., Chetsawang, B., and *Govitrapong, P. Effects of melatonin on nervous system aging: neurogenesis and neurodegeneration. J Pharmacol Sci. 2013.123(1):9-24.

8. Pirompul, N., Govitrapong, P., and *Chetsawang, B. Farnesyltransferase inhibitor attenuates methamphetamine toxicity-induced Ras proteins activation and cell death in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Neurosci Lett. 2013.545:138-143.

9. Permpoonputtana, K., and *Govitrapong, P. The anti-inflammatory effect of melatonin on methamphetamine-induced proinflammatory mediators in human neuroblastoma dopamine SH-SY5Y cell lines. Neurotox Res. 2013.23(2):189-199.

10. Parameyong, A., Charngkaew, K., Govitrapong, P., and *Chetsawang, B. Melatonin attenuates methamphetamine-induced disturbances in mitochondrial dynamics and degeneration in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. J Pineal Res. 2013.55(3):3133-23.

11. Chatchaisak, D., Srikiatkhachorn, A., Maneesri-le Grand, S., Govitrapong, P., and *Chetsawang, B. The role of calcitonin gene-related peptide on the increase in transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 levels in trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nucleus caudalis activation of rat. J Chem Neuroanat. 2013.47:50-56.

12. Wongchitrat, P., Govitrapong, P., and *Phansuwan-Pujito, P. The expression of Per1 and Aa-nat genes in the pineal gland of postnatal rats. J Med Assoc Thai. 2012.95 Suppl 12:S69-S75.

13. Suwanjang, W., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Govitrapong, P., and *Chetsawang, B. Calpastatin reduces calpain and caspase activation in methamphetamine-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cultured cells. Neurosci Lett. 2012.526(1):49-53.

14. Sae-Ung, K., Ueda, K., Govitrapong, P., and *Phansuwan-Pujito, P. Melatonin reduces the expression of alpha-synuclein in the dopamine containing neuronal regions of amphetamine-treated postnatal rats. J Pineal Res. 2012.52(1):128-137.

15. Permpoonputtana, K., Mukda, S., and *Govitrapong, P. Effect of melatonin on D-amphetamine-induced neuroglial alterations in postnatal rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Neurosci Lett. 2012.524(1):1-4.

16. Narasingappa, R. B., Javagal, M. R., Pullabhatla, S., Htoo, H. H., Rao, J. K., Hernandez, J. F., Govitrapong, P., and *Vincent, B.  Activation of alpha-secretase by curcumin-aminoacid conjugates. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012.;424(4):691-696.

17. Jiaranaikulwanitch, J., Govitrapong, P., Fokin, V. V., and *Vajragupta, O. From BACE1 inhibitor to multifunctionality of tryptoline and tryptamine triazole derivatives for Alzheimer’s disease. Molecules. 2012.17(7):8312-8333.

18. Chetsawang, J., Suwanjang, W., Pirompul, N., Govitrapong, P., and *Chetsawang, B. Calpastatin reduces methamphetamine-induced induction in c-Jun phosphorylation, Bax and cell death in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Neurosci Lett. 2012.506(1):7-11.

19. Wongchitrat, P., Felder-Schmittbuhl, M. P., Govitrapong, P., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., and *Simonneaux, V. A noradrenergic sensitive endogenous clock is present in the rat pineal gland. Neuroendocrinology. 2011.94(1):75-83.

20. Vincent, B., and *Govitrapong, P. Activation of the alpha-secretase processing of AbetaPP as a therapeutic approach in Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011.24 Suppl 2:75-94.

21. Tongjaroenbuangam, W., Ruksee, N., Chantiratikul, P., Pakdeenarong, N., Kongbuntad, W., and *Govitrapong, P. Neuroprotective effects of quercetin, rutin and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Linn.) in dexamethasone-treated mice. Neurochem Int. 2011.59(5):677-685.

22. Sinchai, T., Plasen, S., Sanvarinda, Y., Jaisin, Y., Govitrapong, P., Morales, N. P., Ratanachamnong, P., and *Plasen, D. Caffeine potentiates methamphetamine-induced toxicity both in vitro and in vivo. Neurosci Lett. 2011.502(1):65-69.

23. Pan, D., Boon-Unge, K., Govitrapong, P., and *Zhou, J. Emetine regulates the alternative splicing of caspase 9 in tumor cells. Oncol Lett. 2011.2(6):1309-1312.

24. Mukda, S., Vimolratana, O., and *Govitrapong, P. Melatonin attenuates the amphetamine-induced decrease in vesicular monoamine transporter-2 expression in postnatal rat striatum. Neurosci Lett. 2011.488(2):154-157.

25. Jaisin, Y., Thampithak, A., Meesarapee, B., Ratanachamnong, P., Suksamrarn, A., Phivthong-Ngam, L., Phumala-Morales, N., Chongthammakun, S., Govitrapong, P., and *Sanvarinda, Y. Curcumin I protects the dopaminergic cell line SH-SY5Y from 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity through attenuation of p53-mediated apoptosis. Neurosci Lett. 2011.489(3):192-196.

26. Bolborea, M., Laran-Chich, M. P., Rasri, K., Hildebrandt, H., Govitrapong, P., Simonneaux, V., Pevet, P., Steinlechner, S., and *Klosen, P. Melatonin controls photoperiodic changes in tanycyte vimentin and neural cell adhesion molecule expression in the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Endocrinology. 2011.152(10):3871-3883.

27. Toskulkao, T., Pornchai, R., Akkarapatumwong, V., Vatanatunyakum, S., and *Govitrapong, P. Alteration of lymphocyte opioid receptors in methadone maintenance subjects. Neurochem Int. 2010.56(2):285-290.

28. Tocharus, J., Khonthun, C., Chongthammakun, S., and *Govitrapong, P. Melatonin attenuates methamphetamine-induced overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in microglial cell lines. J Pineal Res. 2010.48(4):347-352.

29. Suwanjang, W., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Govitrapong, P., and*Chetsawang, B.  The protective effect of melatonin on methamphetamine-induced calpain-dependent death pathway in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cultured cells. J Pineal Res. 2010.48(2):94-101.

30. Sotthibundhu, A., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., and *Govitrapong, P. Melatonin increases proliferation of cultured neural stem cells obtained from adult mouse subventricular zone. J Pineal Res. 2010.49(3):291-300.

31. Nopparat, C., Porter, J. E., Ebadi, M., and *Govitrapong, P. The mechanism for the neuroprotective effect of melatonin against methamphetamine-induced autophagy. J Pineal Res. 2010.49(4):382-389.

32. Jutapakdeegul, N., Afadlal, S., Polaboon, N., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., and *Govitrapong, P. Repeated restraint stress and corticosterone injections during late pregnancy alter GAP-43 expression in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of rat pups. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2010 .28(1):83-90.

33. *Govitrapong, P., Boontem, P., Kooncumchoo, P., Pinweha, S., Namyen, J., Sanvarinda, Y., and Vatanatunyakum, S. Increased blood oxidative stress in amphetamine users. Addict Biol. 2010.15(1):100-102.

34. Chetsawang, J., Govitrapong, P., and *Chetsawang, B. Hydrogen peroxide toxicity induces Ras signaling in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cultured cells. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010.2010.

35. Afadlal, S., Polaboon, N., Surakul, P., *Govitrapong, P., and Jutapakdeegul, N.  Prenatal stress alters presynaptic marker proteins in the hippocampus of rat pups. Neurosci Lett. 2010.470(1):24-27.

36. Wisessmith, W., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Govitrapong, P., and *Chetsawang, B.  Melatonin reduces induction of Bax, caspase and cell death in methamphetamine-treated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cultured cells. J Pineal Res. 2009.46(4):433-440.

37. Thampithak, A., Jaisin, Y., Meesarapee, B., Chongthammakun, S., Piyachaturawat, P., Govitrapong, P., Supavilai, P., and *Sanvarinda, Y.  Transcriptional regulation of iNOS and COX-2 by a novel compound from Curcuma comosa in lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation. Neurosci Lett. 2009.462(2):171-175.

38. Rojanathammanee, L., Harmon, E. B., Grisanti, L. A., Govitrapong, P., Ebadi, M., Grove, B. D., Miyagi, M., and *Porter, J. E. The 27-kDa heat shock protein confers cytoprotective effects through a beta 2-adrenergic receptor agonist-initiated complex with beta-arrestin. Mol Pharmacol. 2009.75(4):855-865.

39. Mukda, S., Moller, M., Ebadi, M., and *Govitrapong, P. The modulatory effect of substance P on rat pineal norepinephrine release and melatonin secretion. Neurosci Lett. 2009.461(3):258-261.

40. Mukda, S., Kaewsuk, S., Ebadi, M., and *Govitrapong, P. Amphetamine-induced changes in dopamine receptors in early postnatal rat brain. Dev Neurosci. 2009.31(3):193-201.

41. Kongsuphol, P., Mukda, S., Nopparat, C., Villarroel, A., and *Govitrapong, P.  Melatonin attenuates methamphetamine-induced deactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling to induce autophagy in SK-N-SH cells. J Pineal Res. 2009.46(2):199-206.

42. Kaewsuk, S., Tannenberg, R. K., Kuo, S. W., Bjorkman, S. T., Govitrapong, P., Stadlin, A., and *Dodd, P. R. Regional expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor proteins in the cerebral cortex of asphyxic newborn infants. J Child Neurol. 2009.24(2):183-193.

43. Kaewsuk, S., Sae-ung, K., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., and *Govitrapong, P. Melatonin attenuates methamphetamine-induced reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase, synaptophysin and growth-associated protein-43 levels in the neonatal rat brain. Neurochem Int. 2009.55(6):397-405.

44. Chetsawang, B., Chetsawang, J., and *Govitrapong, P. Protection against cell death and sustained tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation in hydrogen peroxide- and MPP-treated human neuroblastoma cells with melatonin. J Pineal Res. 2009.46(1):36-42.

45. Tocharus, J., Chongthammakun, S., and *Govitrapong, P. Melatonin inhibits amphetamine-induced nitric oxide synthase mRNA overexpression in microglial cell lines. Neurosci Lett. 2008.439(2):134-137.

46. Ruksee, N., Tongjaroenbuangam, W., Casalotti, S. O., and *Govitrapong, P. Amphetamine and pseudoephedrine cross-tolerance measured by c-Fos protein expression in brains of chronically treated rats. BMC Neurosci. 2008.9:99.

47. Rasri, K., Mason, P., Govitrapong, P., Pevet, P., and *Klosen, P. Testosterone-driven seasonal regulation of vasopressin and galanin in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Neuroscience. 2008.157(1):174-187.

48. Klongpanichapak, S., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Ebadi, M., and *Govitrapong, P.  Melatonin inhibits amphetamine-induced increase in alpha-synuclein and decrease in phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase in SK-N-SH cells. Neurosci Lett. 2008.436(3):309-313.

49. Chetsawang, B., Kooncumchoo, P., Govitrapong, P., and *Ebadi, M.  1-Methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium ion-induced oxidative stress, c-Jun phosphorylation and DNA fragmentation factor-45 cleavage in SK-N-SH cells are averted by selegiline. Neurochem Int. 2008.53(6-8):283-288.

50. Ajjimaporn, A., Shavali, S., Ebadi, M., and *Govitrapong, P.  Zinc rescues dopaminergic SK-N-SH cell lines from methamphetamine-induced toxicity. Brain Res Bull. 2008.77(6):361-366.

51. Wanpen, S., Kooncumchoo, P., Shavali, S., Govitrapong, P., and *Ebadi, M.  Salsolinol, an endogenous neurotoxin, activates JNK and NF-kappaB signaling pathways in human neuroblastoma cells. Neurochem Res. 2007.32(3):443-50.

52. Klongpanichapak, S., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Ebadi, M., and *Govitrapong, P. Melatonin protects SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells from amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. J Pineal Res. 2007.43(1):65-73.

53. Chucharoen, P., Chetsawang, B., Putthaprasart, C., Srikiatkhachorn, A., and *Govitrapong, P.  The presence of melatonin receptors and inhibitory effect of melatonin on hydrogen peroxide-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in bovine cerebral blood vessels. J Pineal Res. 2007.43(1):35-41.

54. Chetsawang, J., Govitrapong, P., and *Chetsawang, B. Melatonin inhibits MPP+-induced caspase-mediated death pathway and DNA fragmentation factor-45 cleavage in SK-N-SH cultured cells. J Pineal Res. 2007.43(2):115-120.

55. Boon-Unge, K., Yu, Q., Zou, T., Zhou, A., Govitrapong, P., and *Zhou, J. Emetine regulates the alternative splicing of Bcl-x through a protein phosphatase 1-dependent mechanism. Chem Biol. 2007.14(12):1386-1392.

56. Ajjimaporn, A., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Ebadi, M., and *Govitrapong, P. Zinc protects SK-N-SH cells from methamphetamine-induced alpha-synuclein expression. Neurosci Lett. 2007.419(1):59-63.

57. Tongjaroenbuangam, W., Jongkamonwiwat, N., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Casalotti, S. O., Forge, A., Dodson, H., and *Govitrapong, P. Relationship of opioid receptors with GABAergic neurons in the rat inferior colliculus. Eur J Neurosci. 2006.24(7):1987-1994.

58. Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Ebadi, M., and *Govitrapong, P. Immunocytochemical characterization of Delta-opioid and Mu-opioid receptor protein in the bovine pineal gland. Cells Tissues Organs. 2006.182(1):48-56.

59. Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Boontem, P., Chetsawang, B., Ebadi, M., and *Govitrapong, P. Dopamine transporter immunoreactive terminals in the bovine pineal gland. Neurosci Lett. 2006.403(1-2):78-83.

60. Kooncumchoo, P., Sharma, S., Porter, J., Govitrapong, P., and *Ebadi, M.  Coenzyme Q(10) provides neuroprotection in iron-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons. J Mol Neurosci. 2006.28(2):125-141.

61. Klongpanichapak, S., Govitrapong, P., Sharma, S. K., and *Ebadi, M. Attenuation of cocaine and methamphetamine neurotoxicity by coenzyme Q10. Neurochem Res. 2006.31(3):303-311.

62. Jongkamonwiwat, N., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Casalotti, S. O., Forge, A., Dodson, H., and *Govitrapong, P. The existence of opioid receptors in the cochlea of guinea pigs. Eur J Neurosci. 2006.23(10):2701-2711.

63. Chetsawang, B., Putthaprasart, C., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., and *Govitrapong, P.  Melatonin protects against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death signaling in SH-SY5Y cultured cells: involvement of nuclear factor kappa B, Bax and Bcl-2. J Pineal Res. 2006.41(2):116-123.

64. Shavali, S., Ho, B., Govitrapong, P., Sawlom, S., Ajjimaporn, A., Klongpanichapak, S., and *Ebadi, M. Melatonin exerts its analgesic actions not by binding to opioid receptor subtypes but by increasing the release of beta-endorphin an endogenous opioid. Brain Res Bull. 2005.64(6):471-479.

65. Santanavanich, C., Ebadi, M., and *Govitrapong, P. Dopamine receptor activation in bovine pinealocyte via a cAMP-dependent transcription pathway. J Pineal Res. 2005.38(3):170-175.

66. Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Govitrapong, P., and *Moller, M. Immunohistochemical demonstration of opioids and tachykinins in human pineal gland. J Med Assoc Thai. 2005.88 Suppl 1:S56-S65.

67. Mukda, S., Chetsawang, B., Govitrapong, P., Schmidt, P. T., Hay-Schmidt, A., and *Moller, M. Tachykinins and tachykinin-receptors in the rat pineal gland. Eur J Neurosci. 2005.21(10):2743-751.

68. Kumarnsit, E., Keawpradub, N., Vongvatcharanon, U., Sawangjaroen, K., and *Govitrapong, P. Suppressive effects of dichloromethane fraction from the Areca catechu nut on naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in mice. Fitoterapia. 2005.76(6):534-539.

69. Chetsawang, B., and *Govitrapong, P. Stimulatory effect of morphine on rat pineal melatonin synthesis via a cyclic AMP-dependent transcription pathway. Neurosci Lett. 2005.389(1):57-60.

70. Chagkutip, J., Govitrapong, P., Klongpanichpak, S., and *Ebadi, M. Mechanism of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced dopamine release from PC12 cells. Neurochem Res. 2005.30(5):633-639.

71. Ajjimaporn, A., Swinscoe, J., Shavali, S., Govitrapong, P., and *Ebadi, M. Metallothionein provides zinc-mediated protective effects against methamphetamine toxicity in SK-N-SH cells. Brain Res Bull. 2005.67(6):466-475.

72. Wanpen, S., Govitrapong, P., Shavali, S., Sangchot, P., and *Ebadi, M.  Salsolinol, a dopamine-derived tetrahydroisoquinoline, induces cell death by causing oxidative stress in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells, and the said effect is attenuated by metallothionein. Brain Res. 2004.1005(1-2):67-76.

73. Tongjaroenbungam, W., Jongkamonwiwat, N., Cunningham, J., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Dodson, H. C., Forge, A., Govitrapong, P., and *Casalotti, S. O. Opioid modulation of GABA release in the rat inferior colliculus. BMC Neurosci. 2004.5:31.

74. Chuchuen, U., Ebadi, M., and *Govitrapong, P. The stimulatory effect of mu- and delta-opioid receptors on bovine pinealocyte melatonin synthesis. J Pineal Res. 2004.37(4):223-229.

75. Chetsawang, B., Govitrapong, P., and *Ebadi, M. The neuroprotective effect of melatonin against the induction of c-Jun phosphorylation by 6-hydroxydopamine on SK-N-SH cells. Neurosci Lett. 2004.371(2-3):205-208.

76. Srisawat, S., Phivthong-Ngam, L., Unchern, S., Chantharaksri, U., Govitrapong, P., and *Sanvarinda, Y. Improvement of vascular function by chronic administration of a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2003.30(5-6):405-412.

77. Santanavanich, C., Chetsawang, B., Ebadi, M., and *Govitrapong, P. Effects of D1- and D2-dopamine receptor activation on melatonin synthesis in bovine pinealocytes. J Pineal Res. 2003.35(3):169-176.

78. Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Saleema, L., Mukda, S., Tongjaroenbuangam, W., Jutapakdeegul, N., Casalotti, S. O., Forge, A., Dodson, H., and *Govitrapong, P. The opioid receptors in inner ear of different stages of postnatal rats. Hear Res. 2003.184(1-2):1-10.

79. Jutapakdeegul, N., Casalotti, S. O., Govitrapong, P., and *Kotchabhakdi, N.  Postnatal touch stimulation acutely alters corticosterone levels and glucocorticoid receptor gene expression in the neonatal rat. Dev Neurosci. 2003.25(1):26-33.

80. Jongkamonwiwat, N., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Sarapoke, P., Chetsawang, B., Casalotti, S. O., Forge, A., Dodson, H., and *Govitrapong, P. The presence of opioid receptors in rat inner ear. Hear Res. 2003.181(1-2):85-93.

81. Govitrapong, P., Vilaipun, P., and *Ebadi, M. Identification of dopamine transporter in bovine pineal gland using [3H]GBR 12935. J Pineal Res. 2003.35(1):16-23.

82. Chucharoen, P., Chetsawang, B., Srikiatkhachorn, A., and *Govitrapong, P.  Melatonin receptor expression in rat cerebral artery. Neurosci Lett. 2003.341(3):259-261.

83. Chagkutip, J., Vaughan, R. A., Govitrapong, P., and *Ebadi, M. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced down-regulation of dopamine transporter function correlates with a reduction in dopamine transporter cell surface expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003.311(1):49-54.

84. Sangchot, P., Sharma, S., Chetsawang, B., Porter, J., Govitrapong, P., and *Ebadi, M. Deferoxamine attenuates iron-induced oxidative stress and prevents mitochondrial aggregation and alpha-synuclein translocation in SK-N-SH cells in culture. Dev Neurosci. 2002.24(2-3):143-153.

85. Govitrapong, P., Sawlom, S., and *Ebadi, M. The presence of delta and mu-, but not kappa or ORL(1) receptors in bovine pinealocytes. Brain Res. 2002.951(1):23-30.

86. Govitrapong, P., Sawlom, S., Chetsawang, B., Sangchot, P., and *Ebadi, M.  The bovine pineal gland contains delta and mu but not kappa or ORL1 opioid receptor subtypes. Proc West Pharmacol Soc. 2002.45:32-35.

87. Govitrapong, P., Mukda, S., Turakitwanakan, W., Dumrongphol, H., Chindaduangratn, C., and *Sanvarinda, Y. Platelet serotonin transporter in schizophrenic patients with and without neuroleptic treatment. Neurochem Int. 2002.41(4):209-216.

88. Kaewsuk, S., Hutamekalin, P., Ketterman, A. J., Khotchabhakdi, N., Govitrapong, P., and *Casalotti, S. O. Morphine induces short-lived changes in G-protein gene expression in rat prefrontal cortex. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001.411(1-2):11-16.

89. *Ebadi, M., Govitrapong, P., Sharma, S., Muralikrishnan, D., Shavali, S., Pellett, L., Schafer, R., Albano, C., and Eken, J. Ubiquinone (coenzyme q10) and mitochondria in oxidative stress of parkinson’s disease. Biol Signals Recept. 2001.10(3-4):224-253.

90. Chetsawang, B., Govitrapong, P., and *Moller, M. The effects of adrenergic agonists on c-fos, jun-B and nitric oxide synthase-like immunoreactivities in cultured rat pinealocytes. J Pineal Res. 2001.31(2):186-192.

91. Srikiatkhachorn, A., Tarasub, N., and *Govitrapong, P. Effect of chronic analgesic exposure on the central serotonin system: a possible mechanism of analgesic abuse headache. Headache. 2000.40(5):343-350.

92. *Govitrapong, P., Chagkutip, J., Turakitwanakan, W., and Srikiatkhachorn, A. Platelet 5-HT(2A) receptors in schizophrenic patients with and without neuroleptic treatment. Psychiatry Res. 2000.96(1):41-50.

93. Srikiatkhachorn, A., Tarasub, N., and *Govitrapong, P. Acetaminophen-induced antinociception via central 5-HT(2A) receptors. Neurochem Int. 1999.34(6):491-498.

94. Rasmussen, N., Nelson, F., Govitrapong, P., and *Ebadi, M. The actions of melanin and melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH). Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 1999.20(5):265-282.

95. Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Moller, M., and *Govitrapong, P. Cholinergic innervation and function in the mammalian pineal gland. Microsc Res Tech. 1999.46(4-5):281-295.

96. Kumarnsit, E., Harnyuttanakorn, P., Meksuriyen, D., Govitrapong, P., Baldwin, B. A., Kotchabhakdi, N., and *Casalotti, S. O. Pseudoephedrine, a sympathomimetic agent, induces Fos-like immunoreactivity in rat nucleus accumbens and striatum. Neuropharmacology. 1999.38(9):1381-1387.

97. Chetsawang, B., Casalotti, S. O., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Kotchabhakdi, N., and *Govitrapong, P. Gene expressions of opioid receptors and G-proteins in pineal glands. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999.262(3):775-780.

98. Tongjaroenbuangam, W., Meksuriyen, D., Govitrapong, P., Kotchabhakdi, N., and *Baldwin, B. A. Drug discrimination analysis of pseudoephedrine in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1998.59(2):505-510.

99. Srikiatkhachorn, A., Puangniyom, S., and *Govitrapong, P.  Plasticity of 5-HT serotonin receptor in patients with analgesic-induced transformed migraine. Headache. 1998.38(7):534-539.

100. Srikiatkhachorn, A., Maneesri, S., Govitrapong, P., and *Kasantikul, V.  Derangement of serotonin system in migrainous patients with analgesic abuse headache: clues from platelets. Headache. 1998.38(1):43-49.

101. Sanvarinda, Y., Phivthongngam, L., and *Govitrapong, P. Alterations of striatal cholinergic receptors after lesioning of the substantia nigra. Neurochem Int. 1998.33(2):187-193.

102. Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Jitjaijamjang, W., Ebadi, M., Govitrapong, P., and *Moller, M. Opioidergic innervation of the tree shrew pineal gland: an immunohistochemical study. J Pineal Res. 1998.24(4):209-214.

103. Govitrapong, P., Suttitum, T., Kotchabhakdi, N., and *Uneklabh, T. Alterations of immune functions in heroin addicts and heroin withdrawal subjects. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998.286(2):883-889.

104. Govitrapong, P., Jitaijamjang, W., Chetsawang, B., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., and *Ebadi, M. Existence and function of opioid receptors on mammalian pinealocytes. J Pineal Res. 1998.24(4):201-208.

105.*Ebadi, M., Govitrapong, P., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Nelson, F., and Reiter, R. J.  Pineal opioid receptors and analgesic action of melatonin. J Pineal Res. 1998.24(4):193-200.

106. Wattanathorn, J., Kotchabhakdi, N., Casalotti, S. O., Baldwin, B. A., and *Govitrapong, P. Ethanol alone or with dexamethasone alters the kinetics of choline acetyltransferase. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996.313(1-2):69-72.

107. Dumrongphol, H., Srikiatkhachorn, A., Hemachudha, T., Kotchabhakdi, N., and *Govitrapong, P. Alteration of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rabies viral-infected dog brains. J Neurol Sci. 1996.137(1):1-6.

108. Srikiatkhachorn, A., Govitrapong, P., and *Limthavon, C. Up-regulation of 5-HT2 serotonin receptor: a possible mechanism of transformed migraine. Headache. 1994.34(1):8-11.

109. Moller, M., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Pramaulkijja, S., Kotchabhakdi, N., and *Govitrapong, P. Innervation of the cat pineal gland by neuropeptide Y-immunoreactive nerve fibers: an experimental immunohistochemical study. Cell Tissue Res. 1994.276(3):545-550.

110. Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Pramaulkijja, S., Govitrapong, P., and *Moller, M. An immunohistochemical study of neuropeptide Y in the bovine pineal gland. J Pineal Res. 1993.15(1):53-58.

111. Moller, M., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Govitrapong, P., and *Schmidt, P. Indications for a central innervation of the bovine pineal gland with substance P-immunoreactive nerve fibers. Brain Res. 1993.611(2):347-351.

112. Maneesub, Y., Sanvarinda, Y., and *Govitrapong, P. Partial restoration of choline acetyltransferase activities in aging and AF64A-lesioned rat brains by vitamin E. Neurochem Int. 1993.22(5):487-491.

113. Kittiwatanapaisan, W., Wilairat, P., Kotchabhakdi, N., and *Govitrapong, P.  Effect of dietary vitamin E on L-[3H]glutamate binding in rabbit cerebellum. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1993.39(1):81-88.

114. Govitrapong, P., Zhang, X., Loh, H. H., and *Lee, N. M. Transfection of NG108-15 cells with antisense opioid-binding cell adhesion molecule cDNA alters opioid receptor-G-protein interaction. J Biol Chem. 1993.268(24):18280-18285.

115. Govitrapong, P., Pariyanonth, M., and *Ebadi, M. The presence and actions of opioid receptors in bovine pineal gland. J Pineal Res. 1992.13(3):124-132.

116. *Govitrapong, P., Limthavon, C., and Srikiatkhachorn, A. 5-HT2 serotonin receptor on blood platelet of migraine patients. Headache. 1992.32(10):480-484.

117. Pujito, P. P., Govitrapong, P., and *Ebadi, M. Inhibitory actions of muscarinic cholinergic receptor agonists on serotonin N-acetyltransferase in bovine pineal explants in culture. Neurochem Res. 1991.16(8):885-889.

118. Pratumtan, P., Govitrapong, P., Withyachumnarnkul, B., and *Poolsanguan, B.  L-(3H) glutamate binding to a membrane preparation from the optic lobe of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man. Life Sci. 1991.48(1):19-26.

119. Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Mikkelsen, J. D., Govitrapong, P., and *Moller, M. A cholinergic innervation of the bovine pineal gland visualized by immunohistochemical detection of choline acetyltransferase-immunoreactive nerve fibers. Brain Res. 1991.545(1-2):49-58.

120. Govitrapong, P., Prapapanich, V., and *Ebadi, M. Identification of serotonin 5HT2 receptors in bovine pineal gland. J Pineal Res. 1991.11(3-4):182-187.

121. Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Govitrapong, P., and *Ebadi, M. Choline acetyltransferase in bovine pineal gland. J Pineal Res. 1990.9(1):29-38.

122. Govitrapong, P., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., and *Ebadi, M. Studies on the properties of muscarinic cholinergic receptor sites in bovine pineal gland. Comp Biochem Physiol C. 1989.94(1):159-164.

123. Govitrapong, P., Hama, Y., Pfeiffer, R., and *Ebadi, M. Status of dopamine in bovine pineal glands and the stimulation of N-acetyltransferase activity by D2-dopaminergic receptor agonists in the rat pineal glands in culture. J Pineal Res. 1989.6(1):17-31.

124. Awad, A., Govitrapong, P., Hama, Y., Hegazy, M., and *Ebadi, M. Presence of a metallothionein-like protein in the bovine pineal gland. J Neural Transm. 1989.;76(2):129-144.

125. Govitrapong, P., and *Ebadi, M. The inhibition of pineal arylalkylamine n-acetyltransferase by glutamic acid and its analogues. Neurochem Int. 1988.13(2):223-230.

126. Govitrapong, P., Ebadi, M., and *Murrin, L. C. Identification of a Cl-/Ca2+-dependent glutamate (quisqualate) binding site in bovine pineal organ. J Pineal Res. 1986.3(3):223-234.

127. Govitrapong, P., and *Ebadi, M. Studies on high-affinity [3H]substance P binding sites in bovine pineal gland. Endocr Res. 1986.12(3):293-304.

128. *Ebadi, M., and Govitrapong, P. Neural pathways and neurotransmitters affecting melatonin synthesis. J Neural Transm Suppl. 1986.21:125-155.

129. Govitrapong, P., Murrin, L. C., and *Ebadi, M. Characterization of dopaminergic receptor sites in bovine pineal gland. J Pineal Res. 1984.1(3):215-226.

130. *Ebadi, M., Chan, A., Hammad, H., Govitrapong, P., and Swanson, S.  Serotonin N-acetyltransferase and its regulation by pineal substances. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1982.92:21-33.

131. Jearnpipatkul, A., Govitrapong, P., Yuthavong, Y., Wilairat, P., and *Panijpan, B.  Binding of antimalarial drugs to hemozoin from Plasmodium berghei. Experientia. 1980.36(9):1063-1064.

132. *Ebadi, M., and Govitrapong, P. Microassay and properties of pyridoxal phosphate phosphatase in rat pineal gland. Int J Biochem. 1979.10(8):705-711.

133. *Ebadi, M., and Govitrapong, P. Biogenic amine-mediated alteration of pyridoxal phosphate formation in rat brain. J Neurochem. 1979.32(3):845-853. 134. *Ebadi, M., Bifano, J., Klangkalya, B., Govitrapong, P., and Durham, P.  Levodopa-mediated alteration in the activity of pyridoxal kinase in rat basal ganglia. Pharmacology. 1978;17(3):149-156.

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